The Serpent’s Bite: a natural history of the witch. Part 2

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The picturebook of Hansel & Gretel was only partway finished when Louise Heard of Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop and I began to have discussions about the adaptation of it into a toy theatre kit. However, when Louise saw the full extent of the graphic horrors on display in my illustrations for the fairytale, she thought them too dark for the Pollock’s style, and so I went off to try and figure how to adapt the imagery for her. There were no doubts that my original witch with her wormy nasal cavity, would have to to be toned down!

As a preparation to the job ahead, I invented a ‘back-story’ for the toy theatre design. In the picturebook the children, having survived their run-in with the carnivorous and predatory witch, return home to discover that in their absence their father has murdered their mother with an axe! (The book ends with the grisly truth revealed in an image of the ghost of the mother turning up with the father’s axe still embedded in her spine!)

The prequel to the toy theatre design is that the children have run off to the big city to fall in with a disreputable troupe of actors. Persuaded by an unscrupulous producer to sign over to him the stage, film and publishing rights to their story, Hansel and Gretel end up in ‘Victorian’ costumes playing themselves in a pantomime version of their adventures sweetened and given a good dusting of showbiz glitter! Their feckless father and cruel mother are reshaped by the script as being poor though caring, while the role of the witch is given to a ‘character’ actor better known for playing demon kings and therefore well experienced in eliciting boos and hisses from the crowd!

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The re-shaping of the picturebook witch for the the cut-out-and-assemble toy theatre, was really just a matter of simplification, dressing her in red for maximum impact and giving her a striped cat. However the pointed artificial nose of her picturebook predecessor remained, though as a part of the actor’s ‘make-up’ rather than the prosthetic that disguised something unspeakable beneath! The Pollock’s witch neither flies nor grows fangs, but she rants and raves and stomps about to great effect, and just as in the original Grimm Brothers’ version of the story, imprisons the children and prepares to cook them, though of course it’s her who ends up in the oven!

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The Benjamin Pollock’s Hansel & Gretel Toy Theatre Kit, may be purchased


There is also a delightful Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop pop-up Hansel & Gretel card available, based on the toy theatre design and available



By kind permission of  Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop, The Hansel & Gretel Toy Theatre makes a brief guest appearance in the current music/theatre touring production of Hansel & Gretel, with words by Simon Armitage and music by Matthew Kaner played by the Goldfield Ensemble. I supervised the designs, working closely with Phil Cooper (models and scenic painting), Peter Lloyd (shadow puppets) and Jan Zalud (puppet maker), and I directed the production.

Animating the Unspeakable

The Witch that appeared in the Random Spectacular published picture book of Hansel & Gretel (see above), had already been through a complex line of development from first ideas to finished illustrations by the time I came to re-think her for the stage production.

On the stage the children were to be presented as tabletop puppets made by the wonderful artist/puppet-maker Jan Zalud, based on designs that I’d produced as a guide and that the two of us continued to discuss in great detail throughout his process of making. The puppets’ wardrobes were supervised by Oonagh Creighton-Griffiths.

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But the Witch was always going to be conjured as a shadow screen presence, and in the end was produced as several articulated papercut puppets that were stop-motion operated on a light-box in the manner of the silhouette films made by the great pioneer animator, Lotte Reiniger.

My friend, artist Peter Lloyd, created the papercut puppets for the production. He started with basic designs I provided, and then freely elaborated on them. Peter added the extraordinary detail of the many eyes worked into the surface texture of the Witch’s arms and hands, borrowing the idea from the garment stitched with eyes that the character had worn in my original picturebook. I knew from the moment I saw the papercuts that he’d gifted me with an amazing reimagining of the Witch from the book. A villain needs to be visually fascinating, whether an evil genius or a predatory alien, and the Witch in Hansel & Gretel is no exception. Peter Lloyd’s witchy hands – which as I recall were the first papercuts he made of the character – have a filigree orientalist quality that any animator would be happy to work with. Every finger-joint was articulated, so that when I came to animate the hands (assisted by another artist/collaborator on the project, Phil Cooper), I had the best possible range of movement.

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The Witch papercuts were filmed by Pete Telfer of Culture Colony as black silhouettes on a white screen, but were reversed to negative in the editing process, to create a more ghostly effect.


It’s a fact that I simply couldn’t have produced silhouette puppets as elaborate as Peter’s, as his paper-cutting skills are magnificent and far exceed my own. He created three versions of the Witch: large papercuts of her head and hands for close-up shots, and full-length cloaked and uncloaked representations of her, the latter revealing her full, hybrid crab/scorpion appearance. (Her lashing, scorpion tail was restless in the animations, a barometer – rather like a cat’s tail – of her temper.)


Above and below: two of Peter Lloyd’s silhouettes for the Witch on his cutting board.


There were some minor adjustments to the puppets made during the filming. On the last day of shooting I cannibalised parts from two of them to make a fourth version, in order to present the character in her death throes. In addition, Phil Cooper and I added some eyelids to the large head of the Witch, to enliven her expressions in close up. (In animation, the mechanisms of blinking play a huge part in bringing a character to life.) I adjusted the principal pivot points of the full length puppets, adding transparent, swivelling animation-levers to enlarge their repertoires of movement. That included repositioning the hips and rearranging the legs so as to make the knees reverse-jointed, resulting in a more bird-like gait. (See below.)


The loosely-jointed fingers on the full-length puppets proved unwieldy on the animation screen as they kept shifting when I didn’t want them to, no matter how careful I was. So instead I made a virtue of the problem, being sure to keep them moving at all times. Later, in the editing suite with Jon Street at The Moth Factory in Bristol, when we heard Matt Kaner’s music for the scene for the first time, it turned out he’d made unnerving use of plucked strings, and the effect perfectly matched the Witch’s twitching, restless hands, as though her energy couldn’t be stilled. Creepy!

Close collaboration between the participating artists was crucial on the project. From the outset I’d wanted to enrich the visual aesthetic of what I’d already created by way of the Hansel & Gretel picturebook for Random Spectacular and the toy theatre for Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop, extending my earlier ideas by inviting those whose work I greatly admire to contribute to the stage production. Phil Cooper and I had already collaborated together on the video-trailer for the Random Spectacular picturebook, for which he’d made the set models. Peter Lloyd and Jan Zalud were both familiar with my work and well-prepared for the stage production, even though it departed from much of the material I’d made for the book. I made basic design templates that we all used to stay within the parameters of how the production would look, and they ensured consistency across the board. Everything was discussed at length. It was teamwork from start to finish.



Supervising Designer and Animator – Clive Hicks-Jenkins

Shadow Puppets – Peter Lloyd

Models, Background Paintings and Assistant Animator – Philip Cooper

Tabletop Puppets – Jan Zaud

Puppet Wardrobe by Oonagh Creighton-Griffiths


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Above: photograph courtesy of Philip Cooper


Wood Into Flesh and Blood



In my designs for the tabletop-puppets of Hansel and Gretel, made to guide master puppet-maker Jan Zalud in the complex task of building our wooden actors, I sketched unclothed versions so that the proportions of the characters could be seen.

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Items of clothing were of the stick-over variety used for old-fashioned paper dolls, offered more by way of a starting point for puppet wardrobe supervisor, Oonagh Creighton-Griffiths.




Costuming puppets is a rather hard to define and alchemical skill. It’s the final, transformative stage that comes before entrusting the wooden actors to the puppeteers who will give them life. Flesh and blood performers can take ownership of what’s worn on stage to the point where the warmth and shape of bodies moulds garments so that they stop being ‘costumes’ and become clothes.



But for the inert, wooden actor, the wardrobe supervisor has to take things several stages further in order for the illusion of the character’s history to be present. It requires a forensic approach to detail, because all the clues of subtle ownership and everyday wear and tear have to be crafted into garments worn by actors unable to add any history of their own. Care must be taken so that miniaturisation doesn’t become a distraction. Meticulously crafting a miniature zip, while impressive at a technical level, has the potential to be a distraction from the puppet’s performance. So there needs to be a careful shorthand, paring away extraneous detail while leaving just enough to be convincing. It’s an illusory craft, because it mustn’t draw attention to itself, which is harder than it sounds.


Oonagh and I will meet our puppet actors for the first time in London later this month. We’re greatly anticipating the moment. I’ve wanted to collaborate with Jan Zalud for the longest time, but the stars didn’t align for us to do so until this project. Oonagh and I will be able to closely examine Hansel and Gretel and take measurements of them. Her task of compiling photographic references began several weeks ago, but once she can see exactly what she’ll be costuming, the work of bringing wood to life can begin.




Hansel & Gretel is Coming!

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The Premiere at the Cheltenham Festival is on July 7th.

Box Office open from April 4th.

Words: Simon Armitage
Music: Matthew Kaner
Visual Direction: Clive Hicks-Jenkins
Dramaturgy: Caroline Clegg
Producer: Kate Romano for Goldfield Productions


Puppets: Jan Zalud

Model Sets: Philip Cooper

Shadow Puppets: Peter Lloyd

Puppet Wardrobe Supervisor: Oonagh Creighton-Griffiths



Hansel & Gretel On Stage

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I’m pleased to at long last announce my collaboration with producer Kate Romano of Goldfield Productions on a new adaptation for the stage of Hansel & Gretel, with a spectacularly innovative poetic text by Simon Armitage, and music by composer Matthew Kaner.

Several years ago Kate visited me in at my studio when I was working on, among other things, a picture book of Hansel & Gretel. She’d come to me about another project, but in the end it was the picture book that stuck in her mind, and shortly thereafter she returned with the notion of making a stage production based on the story of the children lost in the wood.

As producer Kate brought composer Matthew Kaner to the project. I realised I’d recently been listening to Matt’s music when he was BBC Radio 3’s Embedded Composer during their 70th anniversary season. Matt, Kate and I met up in London to discuss the project the very day that the Hansel & Gretel picture book was being launched by Random Spectacular. We began to talk about a librettist. Simon Armitage’s name quickly came up, as he and I were already in conversation about illustrations for the revision and republishing of his translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. (Forthcoming from Faber & Faber later this year.) In due course, he was approached by Kate, and after a meeting with the team to discuss ideas, he joined us.

I’m visual supervisor and director to the production, and I’ll be working closely with Caroline Clegg, who’s been charged with the dramaturgy. (Dramaturgy is an alchemical art, hard to pin down with clarity, but basically making sure the many threads of the production pull together as planned to create a coherent whole.)


The visual aesthetic of the project has radically changed from when I made the Hansel & Gretel picture book for Random Spectacular and the Hansel & Gretel Toy Theatre kit commissioned by Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop, with Simon’s extraordinary re-imagining of the story taking us in entirely new directions. I’ve come to view this latest incarnation as the final piece of a trilogy, in which the same story is interpreted in three entirely different ways.
Above, the picture book of Hansel & Gretel (in a special binding made for me by bookbinder, Christopher Shaw), and below, the Benjamin Pollock’s Hansel & Gretel Toy Theatre that I designed for Benjamin Pollock’s Toyshop.
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I’m working closely with artist Philip Cooper, who’s producing the sinister building-block sets that will be projected onto a screen during performances. (Philip was previously my collaborator on the animated trailer we made for the Hansel & Gretel picture book.) With our shared love of Neo-Romanticism and German Expressionism – he moves easily between working in the UK and his home in Berlin – Phil and I share a visual aesthetic that means we collaborate very comfortably together.


Artist, Peter Lloyd, is creating the most extraordinary shadow-puppets. He and I have an interesting way of working. I produce rough sketches and an open brief of how I want a character shaped and characterised, and then Peter runs with the idea, elaborating and adding layers of further detailing. If I’m the director setting out how I see the role, Peter is the casting-agent bringing me the perfect actor! Except he’s a casting agent who ‘makes’ the actors, the Baron von Frankenstein in our company of creators! The final stage will be when I stop-motion animate Peter’s shadow creatures into life.

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I’ll be working with my long-time film-maker and collaborator Pete Telfer of Culture Colony on the animation sequences. Pete and I have been working together for over a decade. He’s filmed and assisted me in the editing of countless projects, including The Soldier’s Tale for the forthcoming Música en Segura festival in Andalusia, and the animated book-trailer for the Random Spectacular Hansel & Gretel picture book.



The onstage puppets for the production are being made by the wonderful Jan Zalud, who I’ve been aching to work with for many years.

Below: Designs I’ve made to guide Jan in the making of our Hansel and Gretel tabletop-puppets.


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For this project we’ve assembled a wonderful team. The production premieres at the Cheltenham Festival in July.

Touring dates (further information & ticket details to follow) 

  • Cheltenham Festival WORLD PREMIERE  – 7th July 2018 
  • Lichfield Festival ‘book at bedtime’ Lichfield Guildhall  – 13th July 2018
  • Lichfield Festival matinee Lichfield Guildhall  – 14th July 2018
  • Three Choirs Festival  – 29th July 2018
  • Oxford Contemporary Music  – 14th September 2018
  • Barbican Milton Court Concert Hall Schools Matinee – 12th October 2018
  • Barbican Milton Court Concrt Hall – LONDON PREMIERE – 12th October 2018
  • Canterbury Festival  Colyer -Fergusson Concert Hall  – 21st October 2018
  • Bath Spa University  – Michael Tippett Centre – 24th October 2018
  • Broadway Theatre (Letchworth)  – 4th November 2018
  • Cambridge Music Festival – 23rd November 2018




Puppet Catch-up: Clive’s Posts

19th century Italian glove-puppet show

Over the past months there’s been much written about puppets at the Artlog by way of offering encouragement to those taking part in guest curator Peter Slight’s Puppet Challenge. In fact between us Peter and I have written so much, that I’ve decided to offer links for easy access to posts that may have been missed first time around, plus links to some puppet-themed items from my archive, written before the challenge. To save crowding, I’ve made two posts. Today we kick off with my collected puppet posts, and Peter’s will follow on Friday.

Clive’s Posts

Guide to Types of Puppetry (ongoing)



Marionettes; Part 1

Marionettes: Part 2


The European Tradition

The Puppets of Palermo

The Royal Toone Theatre, Brussels: Part 1

The Royal Toone Theatre, Brussels: Part 2

The Royal Toone Theatre, Brussels: Part 3

The Guignol Puppet Theatre of Alexei Romanov

20th century artists and puppetry

Dada and Constructivist Marionettes of the 20th C.

Luigi Veronesi’s puppets for The Soldier’s Tale

The Marionettes of Aleksandra Ekster

Paul Klee

Contemporary puppet-makers.

Czech puppet-maker, puppet maker Bára Hubená

Interview with Czech puppet maker Jan Zalud

Interview with Julian Crouch

Jan Svankmejer

20th Century puppet-makers.

Richard Teschner

DoLores Hadley

William Simmonds

Walter Wilkinson

Puppet Performances

69 Degrees South, Phantom Limb

Spartacus, Théâtre La Licorne

The Devil and Mr Punch

How the Hoggler got its Name

Clive Hicks-Jenkins

Cyclops Glove-Puppet

Modes of Locomotion: one puppet, two techniques


The Puppets of The Mare’s Tale

Audrey II

Jan Zalud

As a part of my ongoing exploration of puppets and puppet-makers here at the Artlog, today I offer an interview with the Czech-born puppet-maker Jan Zalud.

Above: heads and hands of villagers carved by Jan Zalud from designs by Lyndie Wright for A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings, a co-production between The Little  Angel  and Kneehigh Theatre.

C.H-J. Jan, you were born in Prague, a city synonymous with puppets. Are there other members of your family who are wood-carvers?

J.Z. There’s no tradition of wood carving or art in my family, they are mostly scientific or business-minded.

C.H.-J. I confess to a prejudice. I don’t really think it’s puppet-making if it’s ‘modelled’ rather than carved from wood. There’s nothing that feels like wood under the hand, or that operates like it, or weighs the way wood does.

J.Z. I can sympathise with that. A wooden puppet feels traditional, and is handmade. If it is carved as opposed to cast it is unique. Wood is just a fantastic material to manipulate, it can be shaped as you wish, has a warmth to it and of course is very durable.

C.H.-J. When I first visited Prague about fifteen years ago, I’d imagined I’d find puppet theatres on every corner. In fact there were a very few, and during my time there I couldn’t find performances of anything other than Don Giovanni. (In much the same way, while there were students at most corners selling tickets for music events, every concert was giving Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.) Undoubtedly tourism, while vital in economic terms, has a way of reducing any culture to what may more readily be packaged and sold. Outside one theatre were  photographs of a fabulously beautiful production of Orpheus and Euridice, but when I enquired at the ticket office I was told that no-one wanted to see such things any more, but they had tickets available for Don G.!

J.Z. I left Prague when I was a kid and and on my return as an adult my experiences were very similar.

However I did find a couple of fantastic shops under the Charles Bridge selling unique hand carved marionettes. These are  one-offs made by the leading carvers and are usually hand stained and painted. They command fairly high prices. There are numerous other shops selling small cheaper puppets that are good in their own way but tend to be more mass-produced with plaster-cast heads and hands, and basic bodies. Nice costumes though.

C.H.-J. I have friends in Prague and no doubt I’ll be returning. Where do you suggest I might go to get more of a sense of the real tradition of Czech puppets? (And where they’re not playing Don Giovanni!) In Brussels recently I attended the Toone Theatre, still giving the old repertoire in Bruxelloise with magnificently battered vintage puppets operated by wonderfully skilled young puppeteers. (They perform in English too, but we attended performances in Bruxelloise for the full, if occasionally bewildering experience.) In Brussels there is a society of Toone ‘Chevaliers’ consisting of enlightened business people who raise funds to support the tradition of marionette performances, which might otherwise struggle to survive.

J.Z. As a child I rembember seeing ‘Spejbl and Hurvinek’ shows. They are two stereotypical characters – a slightly dopey father and a cheeky, enterprising son respectively, both with huge ears and goggly eyes. In the past they were often used as figures of fun, and to comment on politics, but they could also be enjoyed purely as family entertainment. I’m afraid that returning as an adult I only ever got to see Don G.

Below: Spejbl and Hurvinek, puppet characters created in 1920 by Josf Skupa, and in various incarnations well-loved by generations of Czech children.

C.H.-J. There’s a tradition that some puppet-makers are also puppeteers, though that’s not a given. Do you perform as a puppeteer? I see that you played a rather Tevye-like puppet-maker in Joe Wright’s marvellously theatrical film of Anna Karenina.

J.Z. I’m not a natural performer and I very much prefer to stay in the workroom. The skill of puppeteering is well beyond me.

I did have a miniscule role as an extra in Anna Karenina as a lowlife puppet maker. I had a great costume and it took them an hour and half to make me look grubby enough. I sneakily managed to carve a set of hands for the Little Angel Theatre while in the background of a scene – and most likely out of focus. Getting paid twice for the same bit of work!

Above: Jan in make-up for his role as a puppet-maker in Joe Wright’s acclaimed film of Anna Karenina.

Below: a horse puppet carved by Jan that Anna, played by Keira Knightley, purchases for her son’s birthday.

C.H.-J. Last year you made some Lyndie Wright-designed puppets for The Double at the Ustinov Studio, Theatre Royal, Bath. How did that work? Were puppeteers brought in for the production, or did the actors have to learn how to be puppeteers? I’ve worked with some actors who take to puppets like ducks-to-water, and others who are completely incapable.

Below: puppets for The Double by Fyodor Dostoevsky. Designed by Lyndie Wright and carved by Jan.

J.Z. This was one of the most enjoyable jobs I’ve been involved with recently. In this particular instance I was able to really explore the carving leaving the texture heavily tooled with the final chisel cuts being quite bold, yet still fluid.

This production was largely live action with glove puppet sequences. I think the actors had no prior experiences of operating, and had to be trained specifically. Sarah Wright was the puppet director and did a great job in tutoring the actors not only in the movement but also in the way the puppets interacted with the action and the other actors. As an example: at one stage a puppet had to pass a written poem to another actor. The sequence lacked something until she gave directions for the puppet to not only hand it over but to slowly follow the piece of paper with his eyes. Such a simple thing yet it transformed the scene instantly.

Below: puppets for The Double in performance. Photos by Jane Hobson.

The Double, by Fyodor Dostoevsky, was  adapted and directed by Laurence Boswell for the Ustinov Studio, Theatre Royal, Bath. Puppet direction was by Sarah Wright. The actors/puppeteers were: Simon Scardifield, Rob Edwards, Jane Leaney, Nicholas Karimi and Sean Murray.

C.H.-J. I’m soon to start directing The Mare’s Tale, a new chamber-work with narrative commissioned by Mid Wales Chamber Orchestra from composer Mark Bowden and librettist Damian Walford Davies. I’ve designed and made the puppets. We filmed them to see how they were looking, and I was staggered when the conductor James Slater picked one up and worked it like pro. He’d never handled a puppet in his life before, but he just got it. He played to the rehearsal mirror without even being told.

J.Z. From the images I’ve seen so far it looks like an exciting project, I’ll certainly look forward to seeing how it progresses.

C.H.-J. You work with Lyndie a lot, and I can see that you have a real feel for realising her designs. I performed at the Little Angel myself over forty years ago. I was a puppeteer with the Caricature Theatre and we gave some performances there.

You’ve worked on some wonderful productions recently, including a Little Angel/Kneehigh Theatre collaboration. I didn’t see it, but the reviews for A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings were ecstatic. Good gig!

Below:  crab puppet carved by Jan from designs by Lyndie Wright for A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings, a co-production between The Little  Angel  and Kneehigh Theatre.

J. Z. My work with Lyndie at Little Angel Theatre goes back to the days under the directorship of Christopher Leith. I still find it exciting to bring to life her 2D designs – and I think Lyndie enjoys seeing my interpretations.

In A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings she herself carved the six main puppets including the Old Man himself, an absolutely stunning piece of sculpting with hard, strong features and a gentle expression.

Below: Lyndie Wright’s puppet of the Old Man.

My contribution was to carve the multitude of minor characters that Lyndie drew to represent the Villagers and the Afflicted. (see image at top of post)

On the other hand, and to me this was a highlight of our work together, was the very popular collaboration betweeen Little Angel and the Royal Shakespear Company of Venus and Adonis. In this show I had the privilige of carving the two epynomous characters.

Below: puppets for Venus and Adonis designed by Lyndie Wright and carved by Jan.

C.H.-J. I’ve included some images of your automata here. They’re magnificent creations. Which came first, the puppets or the automata?

Above: automaton titled Full Moon.

J.Z  As an art student I was inspired by seeing the Outsiders exhibition in the Hayward gallery in 1979, but my own journey into carving started with some very primitive puppets assembled and whittled out of driftwood from the coast in Sunderland. I started to encase the puppets in boxes and frames, and involved the viewers by having them turn the cogs to activate the figures. The automata evolved from there.

Above: automaton titled Walking in the Park.

I concentrated on a recurring theme of heads with animated faces. Occasionally animals emerged from within the heads. I liked the idea of a small sculpture with an inbuilt surprise.

Above: automaton titled Tour de Hat.

The mechanical aspect soon became an integral part of the piece, not to be hidden but to be appreciated. Sometimes the whole point was just to create a pleasing movement.

Above: automaton titled Pretending to be a Fish and Paying the Price for It.

C.H.-J Jan, it’s been the greatest pleasure getting to know you. I mean it when I say that I hope we get to work together one day. You’re a ‘Maestro’!

J.Z. It’s been a pleasure.